Evaluación de los efectos sinérgicos de cromo y plomo durante el proceso de fitorremediación con berro (Nasturtium officinale) en un humedal artificial//Evaluation of the synergistic effects of chromium and lead during the process of phytoremediation with watercress (Nasturtium officinale) in an artificial wetland

Autores/as

  • Julia Mariana Márquez-Reyes Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Agronomía, Laboratorio de Remediación Ambiental. Av. Francisco Villa S/N, Colonia Ex Hacienda El Canadá, General Mariano Escobedo, Nuevo León, México. C.P. 66455 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8632-2673
  • Arcadio Valdés-González Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Laboratorio de Acuicultura. Av. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México. C.P. 66450 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0689-8566
  • Celestino García-Gómez Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Agronomía, Laboratorio de Remediación Ambiental. Av. Francisco Villa S/N, Colonia Ex Hacienda El Canadá, General Mariano Escobedo, Nuevo León, México. C.P. 66455 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4885-4350
  • Humberto Rodríguez-Fuentes Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Agronomía, Laboratorio de Remediación Ambiental. Av. Francisco Villa S/N, Colonia Ex Hacienda El Canadá, General Mariano Escobedo, Nuevo León, México. C.P. 66455 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6060-4146
  • Julián Gamboa- Delgado Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Departamento de Ecología. Av. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México. C.P. 66450 https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9041-1388
  • Hugo Luna-Olvera Luna-Olvera Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto de Biotecnología. Av. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México. C.P. 66450

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18633/biotecnia.v22i2.1259

Palabras clave:

Rizofiltración, Humedal artificial, Índice de tolerancia, Factor de bioconcentración, Factor de Traslocación

Resumen

La contaminación por metales pesados ha aumentado con los años debido a sus diferentes aplicaciones. Se han evaluado distintas especies vegetales para bioacumular metales pesados, el berro es una especie con capacidad de fitorremediación. Sin embargo, falta información sobre la sinergia que ocurre cuando dos metales en el medio están presentes y condicionan su acumulación en las plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto sinérgico en la acumulación simultánea de Pb y Cr (VI) en berro. Se utilizó un sistema cerrado y un humedal artificial para evaluar el comportamiento de los metales en presencia de berro, cuantificando al final de cada experimento la concentración acumulada en tallos, hoja y raíz. La mayor concentración de ambos metales fue en raíz (Pb > Cr). Al incrementarse la presencia de Cr (VI) en solución, la planta absorbe más metal, y en combinación con Pb el índice de tolerancia se aumenta y el factor de translocación disminuye. Dentro del humedal construido el porcentaje de remoción de Pb y Cr total fue del >99.9% (100 mg L-1) y 95% (28.5 mg L-1), respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos indican que existen interacciones ambientales, físicas y químicas que determinan la capacidad de bioacumulación en el berro, de los metales evaluados.

ABSTRACT

Heavy metal pollution has increased over the years due to its different applications. Different plant species have been evaluated to bioaccumulate heavy metals; watercress is a species with phytoremediation capacity. However, there is little information on the synergy that occurs when two metals in the medium are present and condition their accumulation in plants. The objective of this research was to evaluate the synergistic effect on the simultaneous accumulation of Pb and Cr (VI) in watercress. We used a batch system and an artificial wetland to evaluate the behavior of metals in the presence of watercress, quantifying at the end of each experiment the cumulative concentration in stems, leaf, and root. The highest concentration of both metals occurred in the root section (Pb> Cr). As the presence of Cr (VI) in solution increases, the plant absorbs more metal, and combination with Pb the tolerance index is increased and the translocation factor decreases. Within the constructed wetland the percentage of total Pb and Cr removal was >99.9 % (100 mg L-1) and 95% (28.5 mg L-1) respectively. The results show the presence of effects of environmental, physical and chemical interactions that determine the capacity of bioaccumulation of the metals evaluated in watercress.

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2020-03-21

Cómo citar

Márquez-Reyes, J. M., Valdés-González, A., García-Gómez, C., Rodríguez-Fuentes, H., Gamboa- Delgado, J., & Luna-Olvera, H. L.-O. (2020). Evaluación de los efectos sinérgicos de cromo y plomo durante el proceso de fitorremediación con berro (Nasturtium officinale) en un humedal artificial//Evaluation of the synergistic effects of chromium and lead during the process of phytoremediation with watercress (Nasturtium officinale) in an artificial wetland. Biotecnia, 22(2), 171–178. https://doi.org/10.18633/biotecnia.v22i2.1259

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