Caracterización de bacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal (BPCV) nativas y su efecto en el desarrollo del maíz (Zea Mays L.)

Autores/as

  • Carlos Fernando Amezquita Aviles
  • Claudia Brizeida Coronel Acosta
  • Sergio de los Santos Villalobos
  • Gustavo Santoyo
  • FANNIE ISELA PARRA COTA INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE INVESTIGACIONES FORESTALES, AGRÍCOLAS Y PECUARIAS

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18633/biotecnia.v24i1.1353

Palabras clave:

inoculantes microbianos, promoción del crecimiento vegetal, suelo, invernadero.

Resumen

El maíz (Zea mays L.) es uno de los cereales más importantes para México y la humanidad. El Valle del Yaqui -ubicado en el noroeste de México- es una de las regiones agrícolas más importantes a nivel mundial, se caracteriza por un uso indiscriminado de fertilizantes inorgánicos para mejorar el rendimiento de los cultivos, lo que genera un mayor costo ambiental y económico de la producción de maíz. En este trabajo se realizó una caracterización morfológica, metabólica y molecular de bacterias nativas asociadas a la rizósfera del maíz y se evaluaron los efectos positivos de la inoculación bacteriana en plantas de maíz bajo condiciones de invernadero. Basándose en la secuencia del gen del 16S ARNr las cepas evaluadas se afiliaron taxonómicamente como Bacillus sp. (13B41), Advenella incenata (22A67), Pantoea dispersa (22B45) y Rhizobium pusense (31B11). Todas estas cepas pudieron sintetizar indoles, producir sideróforos y solubilizar fosfatos. La inoculación individual de estas cepas en maíz mostró un incremento significativo (en comparación con plantas no inoculadas) en altura (35-40 %), peso seco de brotes (244-289 %), peso seco de raíces (99-137 %) y valores SPAD (40-47%). Las bacterias asociadas al maíz nativas del Valle del Yaqui son una alternativa prometedora para promover el crecimiento de su planta hospedante y contribuir a una producción de maíz sostenible.

Citas

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2022-02-23

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