PERSPECTIVAS ACTUALES DEL USO DE PROTEÍNAS RECOMBINANTES Y SU IMPORTANCIA EN LA INVESTIGACIÓN CIENTÍFICA E INDUSTRIAL

  • E Guevara-Hernández Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C.
  • AA López-Zavala Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C.
  • LR Jiménez-Gutiérrez Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C.
  • RR Sotelo-Mundo Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C.
Palabras clave: Proteínas recombinantes, sobreexpresión heteróloga, plásmidos, biofármacos, sobreexpresión de proteínas

Resumen

El descubrimiento de la estructura y el mecanismo de replicación del ADN han permitido el desarrollo de técnicas biomoleculares para su manipulación, gracias a estos avances es posible sintetizar proteínas en organismos en los que no se encuentran de manera natural (sobreexpresión heteróloga). A las proteínas producidas de esta manera se les conoce como proteínas recombinantes (PR). Las PR se pueden producir en una gran variedad de sistemas biológicos, como bacterias, levaduras y hasta células eucariontes. Comercialmente están disponibles un gran numero de sistemas de expresión y uno de los más utilizados es el sistema basado en la ARN polimerasa del fago T7. Las PR pueden tener características estructurales y funcionales muy similares a las proteínas naturales y por lo general se producen con alta eficiencia. Sin embargo, algunas PR no son funcionales o sufren problemas de plegamiento cuando se expresan en células procariontes, formando agregados moleculares que se conocen como cuerpos de inclusión. La coexpresión con otras proteínas, como las chaperonas o el uso de cepas modificadas para la sobreexpresión, son algunas de las estrategias utilizadas para evitar la formación de agregados. A pesar de estas limitantes, la tecnología de PR es ampliamente utilizada en investigación y en la industria farmacéutica y alimentaria. Esta revisión tratará sobre los principales aspectos del proceso de producción de PR y sus aplicaciones.

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Publicado
2013-12-30
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