FEROMONA SEXUAL Y HONGOS ENTOMOPATÓGENOS: UN PLUS EN SU APROVECHAMIENTO EN EL MANEJO INTEGRADO DE PLAGAS

Oscar Giovanni Gutiérrez-Cárdenas, Hipolito Cortez-Madrigal, Edi A. Malo, Rineaud- Nord

Resumen


Se analiza y discute el uso de feromonas sexuales (FrSx) de insectos y su potencial para integrarse con hongos entomopatógenos (HEP´s) en el Manejo Integrado de Plagas (MIP). El paradigma en la aplicación de entomopatógenos es mediante la técnica de aspersión, no obstante señalada como la menos eficiente. Una alternativa es la técnica de autodiseminación, fundamentada en la transmisión del entomopatógeno de individuos infectados a sanos. Las FrSx se utilizan en el MIP para monitorear plagas y racionalizar las aplicaciones de insecticidas. Estas sustancias pueden integrarse con HEP´s para potenciar la transmisión horizontal en insectos y propiciar epizootias en sus poblaciones. Diversos estudios documentan el potencial de la técnica de autodiseminación, y en México existen estudios pioneros en plagas urbanas y agrícolas, pero solo con el gusano cogollero se ha integrado la feromona sexual. Diversos aislamientosm mexicanos de Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae, fueron patogénicos contra adultos de Spodoptera frugiperda (100 %). Su corto tiempo de germinación (TG50 14.14 h) y su respuesta con baja humedad (62 %), sugieren alto potencial del uso de HEP´s mediante autodiseminación integrando trampas de feromona sexual del insecto. Las experiencias mundiales y mexicanas, sugieren alto potencial del uso de las FrSx integradas con HEP´s.


Palabras clave


Autodiseminación; Beauveria bassiana; Metarhizium anisopliae; semioquímicos

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18633/biotecnia.v20i3.707

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