La microbiota del tracto digestivo de camarones peneidos: una perspectiva histórica y estado del arte//The gut microbiota of penaeid shrimp: a historical perspective and state of the art

Autores/as

  • Estefanía Garibay-Valdez Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C, Carretera a La Victoria km. 0.6, C.P. 83304, Hermosillo, Sonora, México
  • Marcel Martínez-Porchas Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C, Carretera a La Victoria km. 0.6, C.P. 83304, Hermosillo, Sonora, México https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4074-6731
  • Kadiya Calderón Departamento de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas de la Universidad de Sonora, C.P. 83000, Hermosillo, Sonora, México https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3502-6449
  • Teresa Gollas-Galván Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C, Carretera a La Victoria km. 0.6, C.P. 83304, Hermosillo, Sonora, México https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6952-0907
  • Luis R. Martínez- Córdova Departamento de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas de la Universidad de Sonora, C.P. 83000, Hermosillo, Sonora, México https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3684-3398
  • Francisco Vargas-Albores Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C, Carretera a La Victoria km. 0.6, C.P. 83304, Hermosillo, Sonora, México https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9677-1808
  • Miguel A. Arvayo Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C, Carretera a La Victoria km. 0.6, C.P. 83304, Hermosillo, Sonora, México

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18633/biotecnia.v22i1.1119

Palabras clave:

simbiosis, microbiota, metagenoma, tracto digestivo, camarones peneidos, secuenciación, herramientas bioinformáticas, perfil funcional

Resumen

La microbiota del tracto digestivo es diversa y provee grandes beneficios al hospedero; participando en múltiples funciones relacionadas con su estado de salud, nutrición y crecimiento. Recientemente ha cobrado relevancia el estudio del papel de la microbiota en organismos de importancia acuícola, incluyendo a camarones peneidos. Los estudios pioneros en conocer la relación de los microorganismos en el desarrollo de camarones peneidos utilizaron técnicas dependientes de cultivo. A pesar de los novedosos hallazgos, esto representó solo una pequeña fracción del total de la población; sin embargo, estas primeras aproximaciones permitieron vislumbrar el rol relevante de la microbiota en la biología de estos crustáceos. Más tarde, el desarrollo de métodos basados en técnicas moleculares extendió el panorama con nuevos registros de bacterias no cultivables en estos ambientes, elucidando el efecto de diversos factores incluyendo dieta, antibióticos, probióticos, prebióticos y enfermedades sobre la modulación de la microbiota del tracto digestivo. Sin embargo, el desarrollo de técnicas de secuenciación masiva de alto rendimiento, comenzó a proporcionar bases de datos más robustas, permitiendo conocer no solo qué microorganismos están presentes en un organismo dado, sino también conocer sus funciones y roles potenciales. Hasta el momento se cuenta con descripciones de la composición de la microbiota del tracto digestivo de camarones peneidos y del como el manejo de estos microorganimos tiene beneficios en la respuesta productiva y estado de salud; sin embargo, es necesario continuar comprendiendo la relación microbiotahospedero. La presente revisión analiza la situación actual y plantea las perspectivas futuras para el estudio de la microbiota de camarones peneidos.

ABSTRACT

The digestive tract microbiota is diverse and can provide great benefits to the host, participating in multiple functions related to its health, nutrition and growth. Recently, the microbiota study of important aquaculture species including penaeid shrimp has gained relevance. The first research efforts in the knowledge of the relationship between microorganisms and penaeid shrimp development used culture-dependent techniques. In spite of the novel findings, this represented only a small fraction of the total population; however, these first approaches allowed knowing the relevant role of microbiota in the biology of these crustaceans. Later, the development of methods based on molecular techniques, increased the panorama with new records of nonculturable bacteria in these environments, elucidating the effect of diverse factors including diet, antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and disease on the digestive tract microbiota modulation. However, the rise of high throughput sequencing, began providing robust datasets, allowing to know not only which microbes are present in a given organism, but reveal their functions and potential roles. So far, descriptions of the microbiota composition of the digestive tract of penaeid shrimp are available, as well as on how the management of these microorganisms benefits the productive response and health status; however, it is necessary to continue comprehending the microbiota-host relationship. The present review analyzes the current situation and future perspectives in the study of penaeid shrimp microbiota

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2019-10-18

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Garibay-Valdez, E., Martínez-Porchas, M., Calderón, K., Gollas-Galván, T., Martínez- Córdova, L. R., Vargas-Albores, F., & Arvayo, M. A. (2019). La microbiota del tracto digestivo de camarones peneidos: una perspectiva histórica y estado del arte//The gut microbiota of penaeid shrimp: a historical perspective and state of the art. Biotecnia, 22(1), 5–16. https://doi.org/10.18633/biotecnia.v22i1.1119

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