Biotechnological production of xylitol from agricultural waste//Producción biotecnológica de xilitol a partir de residuos agrícolas



Palabras clave:

Xylitol, agricultural residues, biotechnological pathways, sweeteners, food additives


Agricultural residues valorization has been an important issue over the last decades. Agricultural crop waste is an abundant, non-food, renewable, and low-cost feedstock to obtain attractive products for the food industry. The interest in replacing food ingredients such as artificial sweeteners with these obtained by biotechnological processes has grown in recent years, due to consumer’s high demand for low-calories foods and beverages without sacrificing taste. Several types of low caloric sweeteners are being obtained from the biotransformation of agricultural residues, with xylitol above all, for environmental, economic, and nutritional reasons. In recent years, the conversion of hydrolyzed agricultural residues into xylitol using enzymes, yeasts, and fungi has shown significant advances, although there are still many problems to be solved. This review presents the main advances in the use of microorganisms, substrates, and process conditions for the biotransformation of agricultural residues to xylitol. Besides, the main advantages and disadvantages of xylitol obtained by biotechnological routes compared to traditional chemical routes are discussed.


La valorización de residuos agrícolas ha sido un tema importante en las últimas décadas. Los desechos de cultivos agrícolas son una materia prima abundante, no alimenticia, renovable y de bajo costo útil para obtener productos atractivos para la industria alimenticia. El interés por reemplazar ingredientes alimenticios de origen sintético por aquellos obtenidos por procesos biotecnológicos ha crecido en los últimos años debido a la gran demanda de los consumidores por los alimentos y bebidas con bajo contenido calórico sin sacrificar el sabor. Varios tipos de edulcorantes de bajo contenido calórico se han obteniendo a partir de la biotransformación de residuos agrícolas, destacando de todos ellos el xilitol por razones ecológicas, económicas y nutricionales. En los últimos años, la conversión de hidrolizados de residuos agrícolas en xilitol utilizando enzimas, levaduras y hongos ha mostrado avances importantes, aunque aún existen muchos problemas por resolver. En esta revisión se presentan los principales avances en el uso de microorganismos, sustratos y condiciones de proceso para la biotransformación de residuos agrícolas en xilitol. Además, se discuten las principales ventajas y desventajas del xilitol obtenido por rutas biotecnológicas comparado con las rutas químicas tradicionales.


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Cómo citar

Espinoza-Acosta, J. L. (2019). Biotechnological production of xylitol from agricultural waste//Producción biotecnológica de xilitol a partir de residuos agrícolas. Biotecnia, 22(1), 126–134.



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