Contenido de acetogeninas a partir de semillas del fruto de guanábana (Annona muricata L.): Evaluación de diferentes condiciones de extracción

Autores/as

  • Gabriela Aguilar-Hernández
  • Luis Gerardo Zepeda-Vallejo
  • Maria de Lourdes García-Magaña
  • Ulises Miguel López-García
  • Selene Aguilera-Aguirre
  • Efigenia Montalvo-González Instituto Tecnológico de Tepic

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18633/biotecnia.v24i2.1453

Palabras clave:

Amona muricata, acetogeninas, semillas, método soxhlet, extracción, asistida con ultrasonido

Resumen

El objetivo fue evaluar la extracción de acetogeninas (ACGs) de semillas de guanábana usando diferentes disolventes, métodos y número de extracciones. El trabajo se desarrolló en cuatro ensayos. En el primer ensayo se evaluaron siete disolventes (metanol, acetato de etilo, diclorometano, cloroformo, éter dietílico, hexano, y éter de petróleo) para extraer ACGs de semillas mediante extracción asistida con ultrasonido (EAU). En el segundo ensayo se comparó la EAU, método soxhlet y disolventes, para obtener ACGs de semillas desengrasadas. En el tercer ensayo se evaluó el efecto del disolvente y número de extracciones con EAU, sobre el contenido de ACGs en endospermo desengrasado. En el cuarto ensayo, se identificaron ACGs. Se observó una mayor presencia de ACGs en los extractos de semillas completas sin desengrasar, con metanol y acetato de etilo. La EAU extrajo más ACGs a partir de la semilla completa desengrasada. Sin embargo, usando el endospermo desengrasado, EAU y cinco extracciones con metanol por 50 min cada una, se obtuvo el mayor contenido de ACGs (25.14 mg/g base seca). Se identificaron dos ACGs (annonacina, y pseudoannonacina) en proporción 73:27. Estas últimas condiciones, son una alternativa para aumentar el rendimiento de extracción de ACGs de semillas de A. muricata.

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2022-05-31

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