PROPIEDADES FUNCIONALES DE LAS ANTOCIANINAS

Miguel Aguilera-Otíz, María del Carmen Reza-Vargas, Rodolfo Gerardo Chew-Madinaveita, Jorge Armando Meza-Velázquez

Resumen


Las antocianinas son un grupo de pigmentos de color rojo, hidrosolubles, ampliamente distribuidos en el reino vegetal (Fennema, 1993). Químicamente las antocianinas son glucósidos de las antocianidinas, es decir, están constituidas por una molécula de antocianidina, que es la aglicona, a la que se le une un azúcar por medio de un enlace β-glucosídico. La estructura química básica de estas agliconas es el ión flavilio (Badui, 2006), también llamado 2-fenilbenzopirilio (Wong, 1995), que consta de dos grupos aromáticos: un benzopirilio (A) y un anillo fenólico (B); el flavilio normalmente funciona como un catión (Badui,
2006). Las agliconas libres raramente existen en los alimentos, excepto posiblemente como componentes traza de las reacciones de degradación (Fennema,1993). De todas las antocianidinas que actualmente se conocen (aproximadamente 20), las más importantes son la pelargonidina, delfinidina, cianidina, petunidina, peonidina y malvidina, nombres que derivan de la fuente vegetal de donde se aislaron por primera vez; la combinación de éstas con los diferentes azúcares genera aproximadamente 150 antocianinas.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18633/bt.v13i2.81

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