Actividad antibacteriana y antimicobacteriana de los subproductos exoesqueleto y cefalotórax del camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei): perfil de ácidos grasos del extracto activo hexánico del cefalotórax del camarón blanco


  • Carmen María López-Saiz Departamento de Investigación y Posgrado en Alimentos. Universidad de Sonora.
  • Enrique Wenceslao Coronado-Aceves Instituto de Investigación Biomédica. Universidad Autónoma de México.
  • Rosario Tavera-Hernández Instituto de Química. Universidad Autónoma de México.
  • Clara Inés Espitia-Pinzón Instituto de Investigación Biomédica. Universidad Autónoma de México.
  • Manuel Jiménez-Estrada Instituto de Química. Universidad Autónoma de México.
  • Patricia Guadalupe Morán-Corrales Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Metalurgia. Universidad de Sonora.
  • Martin Samuel Hernández Zazueta Universidad de Sonoa


Palabras clave:

Litopenaeus vannamei, antimicrobiano, Mycobacterium, sub-productos, ácidos grasos


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el potencial antibacteriano y antimicobacteriano de los sub-productos del camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei). Sonora, México es el segundo estado productor de camarón. Fueron obtenidos los siguientes extractos: extracto hexánico, metanólico y acuoso del exoesqueleto (ExHex, ExMe, ExAc); y extracto hexánico, acetónico y metanólico del cefalotórax (CeHex, CeAce, CeMe). El efecto antibacteriano fue evaluado mediante el método de microdilución en caldo contra las bacterias Gram-positivas: Enterococcus faecalis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 51299, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25293, y Staphylococcus epidermidis; bacterias Gram-negativas: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, y Salmonella typhimurium; y Mycobacterium bovis bacilo Calmette-Guérin (M. bovis BCG) cepa Danesa. CeHex resultó activo contra todas las bacterias Gram-positivas y Gram-negativas (MIC50= 400 ug mL-1) y contra M. bovis BCG (MIC100= 250 ug mL-1). Mediante cromatografía de gases (GC) de CeHex se identificaron los ácidos grasos: oleico, linoleico, palmítico, esteárico, behénico, palmitoleico y linolénico. La fuerte actividad antibacteriana de CeHex y la identificación de sus principales components químicos justifican estudios posteriores en las aplicaciones clínicas de este sub-producto marino.


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