BIORREMEDIACIÓN: ACTUALIDAD DE CONCEPTOS Y APLICACIONES

Keni Cota-Ruiz, José A. Nuñez-Gastelúm, Marcos Delgado-Rios, Alejandro Martinez-Martinez

Resumen


Vivimos una época que experimenta un crecimiento acelerado de la población y una fuerte industrialización. La humanidad, en el afán de satisfacer sus múltiples necesidades, se ha supeditado tanto a tecnologías que dañan el medio ambiente como a la dependencia de compuestos xenobióticos. En consecuencia, serios problemas de contaminación que amenazan tanto la salud de los seres vivos como del ambiente se han suscitado. Como respuesta, la biotecnología ambiental a través de la biorremediación como una de sus aplicaciones, desempeña un rol clave en la remoción de contaminantes. Diferentes sistemas biológicos de remediación, que incluyen el uso de plantas, algas, bacterias y hongos, se han empleado con éxito para tratar ambientes contaminados de metales pesados, hidrocarburos, compuestos xenobióticos, y elementos radioactivos. Aunque la biorremediación no es una tecnología nueva, esta ha ido evolucionando y se ha posicionado como un factor sustancial, tanto en términos de eficiencia como en aspectos económicos, para abatir la contaminación. Esta revisión analiza diferentes problemáticas de contaminación ambiental, describe las principales estrategias de biorremediación y detalla mecanismos moleculares empleados por algunos microorganismos para degradar compuestos tóxicos y recalcitrantes.


Palabras clave


Biotecnología ambiental; contaminación; compuestos tóxicos; sistemas biológicos

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18633/biotecnia.v21i1.811

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