María de los Ángeles de la Rosa-Alcaraz, Gastón Ramón Torrescano Urrutia, José Ángel Pérez Álvarez, Juana Fernández López, Armida Sánchez Escalante


Los frutos y sus subproductos, son fuente importante de fitoquímicos, que impactan en la calidad de los alimentos y la salud de los consumidores. Particularmente los subproductos de dátil son fuente potencial de estas moléculas, debido a que durante su producción comercial el nivel de subproductos obtenido es importante. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de utilización de diferentes métodos (maceración y extracción asistida por ultrasonido: EAU) y solventes (agua, etanol:agua, acetona:agua) de extracción, sobre el contenido de fitoquímicos y la capacidad antioxidante de extractos de subproductos de dátil producidos en el estado de Sonora. Se determinó el contenido de compuestos fenólicos (fenoles, CFT; y flavonoides CFlvT totales), además de la capacidad antioxidante (radical-DPPH•+ y poder reductor, PR). Los resultados mostraron que los subproductos de dátil presentan contenido de humedad (28.44%), grasa (0.52%), proteína (2.56%) y cenizas (2.75%), similares al fruto comercial. Además, se encontró que la utilización de diferentes solventes afectó (p<0.05) el CFT (7.30-10.78 mg de EAG/100 g), CFlvT (30-32 mg ER/100g) y la inhibición del radical-DPPH• (~60%). Mientras que el PR fue afectado (p<0.05) tanto por el solvente como el método de extracción. Estos resultados muestran que los subproductos del dátil pueden ser una fuente de ingredientes funcionales antioxidantes.

Palabras clave

dátil mexicano, compuestos antioxidantes; fitoquímicos; extractos funcionales

Texto completo:



Al-Farsi, M., C. Alasalvar, A. Morris, M. Baron, and F. Shahidi. 2005. Comparison of antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and phenolics of three native fresh and sundried date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties grown in Oman. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53: 7592-7599.

Al-Farsi, M. A., and C. Y. Lee. 2008. Nutritional and functional properties of dates: a review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 48: 877-887.

Al-Humaid, A., H. Mousa, R. El-Mergawi, and A. Abdel-Salam. 2010. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of dates and dates-camel-milk mixtures as a protective meal against lipid peroxidation in rats. American Journal of Food Technology 5: 22-30.

Al-Turki, S., M. A. Shahba, and C. Stushnoff. 2010. Diversity of antioxidant properties and phenolic content of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits as affected by cultivar and location. J. Food Agric. Environ 8: 253-260.

Allaith, A. A. A. 2008. Antioxidant activity of Bahraini date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit of various cultivars. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 43: 1033-1040.

Amira, E. A. et al. 2012. Effects of the ripening stage on phenolic profile, phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of date palm fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60: 10896-10902.

Amorós, A. et al. 2009. Antioxidant and nutritional properties of date fruit from Elche grove as affected by maturation and phenotypic variability of date palm. Food Science and Technology International 15: 65-72.

Ashraf, Z., and Z. Hamidi-Esfahani. 2011. Date and date processing: a review. Food reviews international 27: 101-133.

Awad, M. A., A. D. Al-Qurashi, and S. A. Mohamed. 2011. Antioxidant capacity, antioxidant compounds and antioxidant enzyme activities in five date cultivars during development and ripening. Scientia Horticulturae 129: 688-693.

Balasundram, N., K. Sundram, and S. Samman. 2006. Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial by-products: Antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. Food chemistry 99: 191-203.

Besbes, S., L. Drira, C. Blecker, C. Deroanne, and H. Attia. 2009. Adding value to hard date (Phoenix dactylifera L.): Compositional, functional and sensory characteristics of date jam. Food Chemistry 112: 406-411.

Biglari, F., A. F. AlKarkhi, and A. M. Easa. 2009. Cluster analysis of antioxidant compounds in dates (Phoenix dactylifera): Effect of long-term cold storage. Food chemistry 112: 998-1001.

Brand-Williams, W., M. Cuvelier, and C. Berset. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Science and Technology 28: 25-30.

Chaira, N. et al. 2009. Simple phenolic composition, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacities in water-methanol extracts of Tunisian common date cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.). International journal of food sciences and nutrition 60: 316-329.

Chandrasekaran, M., and A. H. Bahkali. 2013. Valorization of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruit processing by-products and wastes using bioprocess technology–Review. Saudi journal of biological sciences 20: 105-120.

Chao, C. T., and R. R. Krueger. 2007. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.): overview of biology, uses, and cultivation. HortScience 42: 1077-1082.

Chen, Y., H. Luo, A. Gao, and M. Zhu. 2011. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) seed by response surface methodology and their structural characteristics. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 12: 305-309.

Day, L., R. B. Seymour, K. F. Pitts, I. Konczak, and L. Lundin. 2009. Incorporation of functional ingredients into foods. Trends in Food Science & Technology 20: 388-395.

Dayani, O., A. Khezri, and A. G. Moradi. 2012. Determination of nutritive value of date palm by-products using in vitro and in situ measurements. Small Ruminant Research 105: 122- 125.

El Hadrami, A., F. Daayf, and I. El Hadrami. 2011. Secondary metabolites of date palm Date palm biotechnology. p 653- 674. Springer.

Galanakis, C. M. 2012. Recovery of high added-value components from food wastes: Conventional, emerging technologies and commercialized applications. Trends in Food Science & Technology 26: 68-87.

Habib, H. M., H. Kamal, W. H. Ibrahim, and A. S. Al Dhaheri. 2013. Carotenoids, fat soluble vitamins and fatty acid profiles of 18 varieties of date seed oil. Industrial Crops and Products 42: 567-572.

Heim, K. E., A. R. Tagliaferro, and D. J. Bobilya. 2002. Flavonoid antioxidants: chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationships. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 13:


Hong, Y. J., F. Tomas-Barberan, A. A. Kader, and A. E. Mitchell. 2006. The flavonoid glycosides and procyanidin composition of Deglet Noor dates (Phoenix dactylifera). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54: 2405-2411.

Ishurd, O., and J. F. Kennedy. 2005. The anti-cancer activity of polysaccharide prepared from Libyan dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Carbohydrate Polymers 59: 531-535.

Joana Gil‐Chávez, G. et al. 2013. Technologies for extraction and production of bioactive compounds to be used as nutraceuticals and food ingredients: an overview. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 12: 5-23.

Kchaou, W., F. Abbès, C. Blecker, H. Attia, and S. Besbes. 2013. Effects of extraction solvents on phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of Tunisian date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Industrial Crops and Products 45: 262-269.

Kumaran, A., and R. J. Karunakaran. 2007. In vitro antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of five Phyllanthus species from India. LWT-Food Science and Technology 40: 344-352.

Lien, E. J., S. Ren, H.-H. Bui, and R. Wang. 1999. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of phenolic antioxidants. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 26: 285-294.

Mansouri, A., G. Embarek, E. Kokkalou, and P. Kefalas. 2005. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of the Algerian ripe

date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera). Food Chemistry 89: 411-420.

Martín-Sánchez, A. M. et al. 2014a. Phytochemicals in date coproducts and their antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry 158:


Martín-Sánchez, A. M. et al. 2014b. Characterization of novel

intermediate food products from Spanish date palm Phoenix dactylifera L., cv. Confitera) co-products for industrial use. Food Chemistry 154: 269-275.

Mohamed, D. A., and S. Y. Al-Okbi. 2005. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of different extracts of Phoenix dactylifera L. fruits as functional foods. Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau 101: 305-308.

Mrabet, A. et al. 2015. Valorization of Tunisian secondary date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by hydrothermal treatments: new fiber concentrates with antioxidant properties. LWT - Food Science and Technology 60: 518-524.

Naczk, M., and F. Shahidi. 2004. Extraction and analysis of

phenolics in food. Journal of Chromatography A 1054: 95-,111.

Palafox-Carlos, H. et al. 2012. Antioxidant interactions between major phenolic compounds found in ‘Ataulfo’mango pulp:chlorogenic, gallic, protocatechuic and vanillic acids., Molecules 17: 12657-12664.

Pan, G., G. Yu, C. Zhu, and J. Qiao. 2012. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of flavonoids compounds (FC) from hawthorn seed (HS). Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 19: 486-490.

Puri, A. et al. 2000. Immunostimulant activity of dry fruits and plant materials used in Indian traditional medical system for mothers after child birth and invalids. Journal of ethnopharmacology 71: 89-92.

Rice-Evans, C., N. Miller, and G. Paganga. 1997. Antioxidant

properties of phenolic compounds. Trends in plant science 2: 152-159.

Rice-Evans, C. A., N. J. Miller, and G. Paganga. 1996. Structureantioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free radical biology and medicine 20: 933-956.

Rodriguez-Carmona, P. I. 2012. Caracterización de dátil (Phoenix dactylifera L.) variedad medjool y su uso potencial como película comestible. Tesis de Licenciatura. Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ciencias Químico Biológicas.: 105.

Saafi, E. B., A. El Arem, M. Issaoui, M. Hammami, and L. Achour. 2009. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of four date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit varieties grown in Tunisia. International journal of food science & technology 44: 2314-2319.

Sánchez-Zapata, E. et al. 2011. Technological properties of date paste obtained from date by-products and its effect on the quality of a cooked meat product. Food Research International 44: 2401-2407.

Shenasi, M., K. Aidoo, and A. Candlish. 2002. Microflora of date fruits and production of aflatoxins at various stages of maturation. International Journal of Food Microbiology 79: 113-119.

Singleton, V., and J. A. Rossi. 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American journal of Enology and Viticulture 16: 144-158.

Trigueros, L., and E. Sendra. 2014. Nutritional and antioxidant properties of date pastes and blanching water obtained from by-Products of Medjoul and Confitera cultivars. Food Science and Technology 2: 34-40.

Vayalil, P. K. 2012. Date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): an emerging medicinal food. Critical reviews in food science

and nutrition 52: 249-271.

Zhishen, J., T. Mengcheng, and W. Jianming. 1999. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chemistry

: 555-559.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18633/biotecnia.v19i3.442

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.
 |  Añadir comentario