Leptospirosis en la interfaz humano-animal-ambiente en América Latina: determinantes, medidas de prevención y control

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18633/biotecnia.v23i3.1442

Palabras clave:

Leptospirosis, interfaz humano-animal-ambiente, determinantes de ocurrencia, Latinoamérica

Resumen

La leptospirosis es una de las principales enfermedades zoonóticas de distribución mundial, principalmente en regiones con climas cálidos o tropicales. Es ocasionada por la espiroqueta del género Leptospira, se presenta clínicamente de forma asintomática, con cuadros moderados o graves en humanos y animales. La transmisión de animal a humanos es más frecuente en grupos ocupacionalmente expuestos como trabajadores agrícolas y ganaderos, veterinarios, cazadores, trabajadores de rastros e incluso viajeros. Asimismo, también representa una enfermedad asociada a pobreza y ambientes de bajo saneamiento, en comunidades rurales y urbanas, en contacto cercano con animales domésticos y ganado. Se realizó una búsqueda en bases de datos de PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science y Google scholar, usando palabras claves Leptospira/leptospirosis en el periodo 1990-2020. La revisión se enfoca en la descripción de determinantes biológicos y socioambientales que influyen en la ocurrencia de la enfermedad en humanos. La leptospirosis se encuentra en la interfase de la salud humana y animal, y representa un reto para la salud pública, animal, y la producción de alimentos; por lo que es crítica la mejora en las estrategias de prevención, control y vigilancia en países de Latinoamérica, una de las regiones más afectadas por la enfermedad.

Citas

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2021-09-29

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