Análisis genético y molecular de propiedades fisicoquímicas del almidón y su asociación con la modificación del endospermo en maíz de calidad proteínica

Autores/as

  • Elthon Vega-Álvarez
  • Karen Virginia Pineda-Hidalgo
  • Nancy Yareli Salazar-Salas
  • Omar Alejandro Soto-López
  • Vicente Adrián Canizalez-Román
  • José Antonio Garzón-Tiznado
  • Roberto Gutiérrez-Dorado
  • Jose A. Lopez-Valenzuela Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9358-5030

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18633/biotecnia.v24i3.1725

Palabras clave:

Maíz de calidad proteínica, modificación del endospermo, almidón, expresión génica

Resumen

El maíz de calidad proteínica (QPM) fue creado convirtiendo el endospermo suave opaco-2 en un fenotipo vítreo, pero los mecanismos involucrados en esta modificación no se conocen por completo. Se utilizaron líneas recombinantes puras derivadas de las líneas K0326Y QPM y W64Ao2 para identificar loci de características cuantitativas (QTL) asociados con propiedades fisicoquímicas del almidón. También se usaron RILs contrastantes en vitrosidad para evaluar la expresión de genes de biosíntesis de almidón. El mapeo identificó 5 o 6 QTL para cada característica que explicaron en promedio el 66 % de la variación fenotípica. Tres de los QTLs en los bins 4.05, 5.04 y 9.03 se encontraron cerca de los genes de síntesis de almidón Brittle 2 (Bt2), Amylose extender 1 (Ae1), y Waxy 1 (Wx1), respectivamente. La expresión de Wx1 fue tres veces mayor en K0326Y QPM que en W64Ao2 y ocho veces mayor en líneas vítreas en comparación con las opacas, lo que correspondió con la mayor acumulación de la enzima almidón sintasa unida al gránulo I (GBSSI) y el mayor contenido de amilosa observado en las líneas vítreas. El incremento en la síntesis de amilosa podría resultar en gránulos de almidón con más regiones amorfas que favorecen su compactación. Estos resultados sugieren que la modificación del endospermo en QPM está asociada con la síntesis de almidón conteniendo más amilosa durante el desarrollo del grano, lo cual podría facilitar el empaquetamiento de los gránulos de almidón resultando en el fenotipo vítreo.

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Publicado

2022-10-17

Cómo citar

Vega-Álvarez, E., Pineda-Hidalgo, K. V., Salazar-Salas, N. Y., Soto-López, O. A., Canizalez-Román, V. A., Garzón-Tiznado, J. A., … Lopez-Valenzuela, J. A. (2022). Análisis genético y molecular de propiedades fisicoquímicas del almidón y su asociación con la modificación del endospermo en maíz de calidad proteínica. Biotecnia, 24(3), 140–149. https://doi.org/10.18633/biotecnia.v24i3.1725

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