APLICACIÓN DE TRATAMIENTOS TÉRMICOS A FRUTOS DE AGUACATE PARA PROLONGAR SU VIDA DE ANAQUEL

MA López-Mata, Saúl Ruiz-Cruz, JJ Ornelas-Paz, LE Gassos-Ortega

Resumen


Esta revisión resume los avances que han tenido los tratamientos térmicos (TT) utilizados para prolongar la vida útil del aguacate. Las tecnologías que se han venido utilizando a través del tiempo se pueden dividir en aire caliente (AC), vapor caliente (VC), agua caliente (AGC), exposición a luz solar (LS) y radiofrecuencia (RF). Los estudios muestran inconsistencia en sus resultados, debido a que la respuesta fisiológica del fruto de aguacate depende de la variedad, estación del año, lugar de recolección, prácticas de producción y falta de uniformidad en el calentamiento, la exposición o no al sol. Los TT que presentan mejores resultados en mantener la firmeza, retrasar la producción de etileno, disminución de la fuga de electrólitos y menor DF, han sido la LS, AGC y la combinación entre ellos. La exposición a LS induce estrés térmico diurno que aumenta la expresión de las proteínas del choque térmico (HSP17 y HSP70) que pre-condiciona al aguacate a resistir la aplicación de AGC a 50 ºC y el posterior almacenamiento a 0,5 ºC por 28 días.

Palabras clave


Aguacate; aire caliente; vapor caliente; agua caliente; luz solar; tratamientos térmicos

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18633/bt.v15i3.154

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